Classic movie site with rare images, original ads, and behind-the-scenes photos, with informative and insightful commentary. We like to have fun with movies!
Archive and Links
Search Index Here

Sunday, January 31, 2021

Back In a Cartoon Barrel

Still Animates Us After All These Years

Ask yourself frankly if there is anyone you have hated for the last fifty years. I mean hated. More of that later. We’ve heard the expression, Get Over Yourself. Time I took it to heart and stop thinking cartoons began with me in pajamas watching them hours at a turn. To better understand reality of six-seven minutes, a cartoon as “Novelty” portion of a balanced show, I called again upon Conrad Lane, who saw animation when it was a novelty, from the mid-thirties, right through the fifties, black-and-white to color, bad shorts to good, good ones to bad. He put me straight to how cartoons were received … perceived … by himself and friends who saw them brand new, a thing few of us here can claim. Bugs Bunny, Popeye, and Donald Duck were made for Conrad ... and we got Wally Gator, or worse. I don’t deserve to breathe his air, let alone know progress of cartoons as he does. We talked at length of what it was like seeing Warner shields zoom forward to full seating. What was the effect? Conrad says cheers, often as not surprise, because ads where he lived did not specify shorts that went with features … it was whatever movie, plus “News and Novelty.” Latter could be anything, a sport reel, the Three Stooges (huge whoops on sight of them, Conrad recalls), or … a cartoon.


And yes, it mattered whose cartoon. Disney was tops until Warners went to color, then theirs led. On the other hand, when Popeye took on color, he stopped being funny. Fox cartoons were punk, says Conrad, no one applauding their brand. All shrank in the face of Bugs Bunny, him the character Conrad and crew liked best, and imitated on walks home from a show. Another from WB that lit them up: A Tale Of Two Kitties, with “Babbit and Catstello,” more inspiration for mimicry among kids. I asked Conrad if he or others noticed director names in the credits. He said no. They judged cartoons purely by laugh quotient, with no concern as to who “supervised” them. Hands-down favorite was Bugs. He came with the war and was helping win it, so far as then-crowds were concerned. Every boy, girls too, had their BB impression, some inspired enough by the rabbit to go home and ask Mom for carrots. Conrad could never understand why theatres in his town didn’t promote Bugs to the sky when they had him. Was there not showman awareness of how popular he was? Word-of-mouth spread locally, as in Hey, There’s a New Bugs at the Rivoli! If a cartoon was good enough, Conrad’s bunch would stay and see it twice, ushers not minding because being fans too, they understood.

Here’s oddity he mentioned, re the Disney features. Everyone, but everyone, was over the moon for Snow White, adults included, but by Pinocchio and then Bambi, bloom was off the rose. These were for children, said grown-ups, a sentiment strange to Conrad, for he saw both first-run and found them as magical as Snow White. What had so changed parent impression? He speculated that Gulliver’s Travels, coming between SW and Pinocchio, did damage, being a “very bad” picture and maybe a blight upon notion of seeing more animated features. Conrad noted too the habit of theatres to front-load kid matinees with cartoons served in bunches, a thing to further cheapen them for adults. Remember, these were “Novelties” mature viewership preferred that way. Cartoons fed en masse to television made things worse. Kids watching a dozen or more at a time was unhealthy. Why weren’t they riding bikes or catching tadpoles the way Mom and Dad did? Conrad saw cartoons with his children and remembered many a specific one from theatres long before, but knew the while he was exception to a prevailing rule. Most adults had no such recall, had forgot their once enjoyment of cartoons on paying screens, Bugs Bunny a vague memory that need not be retrieved what with family responsibilities to oversee. Stigma had attached to cartoons. To watch so many was to absorb bad influence. Conrad thinks parents who did occasionally sit for a few from TV were loath to admit it later.

Youth was expected to “grow out” of cartoons. Not all of them did. Rebels were popularly known for donning hippie beads and preaching protest. I say real rebels were those taking cartoons seriously and making pioneer study of them. Think how alone in a who-cares world they were. Patronizing peers who had sat transfixed before home tubes now called them immature. Dedication came with skill to read and write, off-grid youngsters jotting down title and credits every seven minutes as each cartoon filed past them, writing stations to complain of Penguin Parade showing too much, I Love To Singa too little. These insurgents went from hand scrawl to offset, fanzines a route to kindred spirits who had to be out there somewhere. Friend Norman Stuart, later outstanding reviewer of books and video for Film Collector’s World, showed me issues of Funnyworld to which he was a subscriber in the early 70’s, wherein artist/innovators like Bob Clampett and Chuck Jones were interviewed, for a first serious time as it turned out. This was about when I began collecting cartoons, Thunderbird a source for PD legit, darker markets supplying me with Slick Hare, Coal Black, others. Then there were TV stations with hungry enough employees to slip stuff out the back, as who’d miss four or five cartoons where there were hundreds more sitting in racks and ready to show? Seemed unlikely a viewer in 1973 would write a program manager and ask, What the deuce happened to Hollywood Steps Out? Collectors leapt a lot of barriers to get rarities, never imagining a time when virtually all they wanted would be readily available, and at prices far below what they had willingly paid forty to fifty years before.

Growing up, there were only three cartoon makers I knew by sight and name … Walt Disney, Walter Lantz, and Bob Clampett. Lantz sat at his easel and was what folks called “avuncular.” He explained, among other things, what made Woody move. Trouble was, I wasn't so into the Woodpecker once past a dynamic, rat-tat opening. Clampett put his name all over Beany and Cecil, a possessory credit, which no other animator had apart from Disney. Soured was I when Bob took over Matty’s Funday Funnies, Herman/Katnip, Baby Huey shoved off for Beany/Cecil. But Clampett seemed a friendly sort, was himself animated so that each week the Sea Serpent licked his face. I didn’t know until years later that Beany and Cecil began as puppets. In fact, Bob’s career started with puppets. Forward to the 70’s, then: I call 1975 the pivotal year. That’s when 16mm rental houses applied push to their cartoons, even devoting “Parades” to directors like Clampett, Tashlin, Avery. Colleges used them as I meantime unspooled “hot” titles, fewer in number it’s true, but no one complained at endless campus repeats of Bacall To Arms or Coo-Coo Nut Grove. Did my heart good when some cheerleader or football player came up and said, Boy, I’ve always loved these things.

Among initial digs was Film Comment salute (January/February 1975) to “The Hollywood Cartoon,” Chuck Jones interviewed at length, also Michael Maltese and Maurice Noble, contributors too long obscure profiled by Joe Adamson. Latter did a book on Tex Avery that year … a whole book! It remains definitive. Then came Bugs Bunny Superstar, feature-fed Warner cartoons culled from those owned by United Artists, meaning pre-49, but good withal, a thrill on big screens even if quality could not approach what we enjoy today. Word was old cartoons barely existed on 35mm, BBS bringing them back as theatre fare, on-camera Bob Clampett, plus Avery and Friz Freleng, as color commentators. Warners saw success of this and bunched backlog for network specials and feature grab-bags. Thing I didn’t realize then was “old-timers” who made cartoons being not so old. In fact, most were vital, brimmed still with ideas, but had little place to go with them (how many creative people voluntarily step down?). Consider this: Bob Clampett turned 62 in 1975, Chuck Jones 63, Tex Avery 67, Friz 71, Chuck the main one to take balls and run with them, doing fresh specials for TV and helping WB on the feature compilations (his Road Runner having become a top draw among Warner characters). Meanwhile, Avery was anointed “King of Cartoons” (funniest anyway), but Tex wasn’t able or inclined to take fullest advantage of recognition.

Veteran cartoonists had been interviewed over the years, if on superficial terms. They were only cartoonists, after all. Bob Clampett sat for a profile wherein he spoke in Bugs Bunny voice, figuring this was expected, chances are he was right. At least Bob knew how to entertain. Pressure was a same as applied to comedians, all assumed to be funny on or off cameras. Jones was more the scholar … droll, bookish, but like the rest, happy to be wanted and an always willing interview subject. Clampett had a 70’s leg up for keeping drawers of sketches, cels, scale-statuary used as guides for he and other animators when Bugs, Porky, others, were first developed, his archive unique for history otherwise thrown to dumps by WB when they closed cartoon shop in 1963. Bob’s memory was steel-trappish, his door open always to young people who had grown up on output from his glory days. Bugs Bunny Superstar let a wider net know what good company he was, so Clampett was invited places, like upstate to UC Davis (twice), his student host telling me how Bob pulled long screening and workshop days, then invited students back to his hotel for “sock hops” that went late into night, his only request of the school that they supply tubs of pistachio ice cream. He doted on ice cream. Bob was most eager to stay current, preferring the society of youth. Cartoons he ran came up in the trunk of Clampett’s car. College kids loved him like the Pied Piper. Appearances were far-flung, one to Toronto for a weekend marathon, GPS correspondent Reg Hartt having described these before. Bob’s was the friendliest face of Classic Era cartooning. He even said nice things about Leon Schlesinger.

Interviewers became needle-nose plier detailed. Seems no scholar paid such close attention as TV-raised cartoon hounds. Lazy former queries would ask who invented Bugs or Daffy --- now it was which and why so-and-so drew the open but not the middle of this or that cartoon. Jones enjoyed the hare-splitting, Clampett more than equal to task of recalling it all. Finally had come fans truly interested in their art and craft. Chuck and Bob were questioned at length (separately to be sure) by Michael Barrier and Milton Gray for Funnyworld in 1969. Fur flew later when Jones accused Clampett of hogging credit where entitled to little, or as Chuck saw it, none. There was long term animus here, but not on Bob’s side. He seemed to like everybody. Chuck in a meantime seethed, as he had since the late 30’s. Did Bob euchre him out of a director’s seat, or delay his getting there, way back when? God forgives, Chuck didn’t. He wrote a mean letter denouncing Bob and pushed Tex Avery to co-sign it (Tex later expressed regret), a sort of Lutherish nailing to church door of bitter truths as Chuck Jones saw them. But he too took passive credit for characters at times, not disputing intros that said Jones invented more cartooning wheels than was fact (though Road Runner and Pepe Le Pew were indisputably his).

So far as scatterbrain scribes figured, if you worked at Warners in the 30/40’s, you were Daddy to Bugs, Porky, Gabby Goat, whatever got drawn in yawning days of the art. These were cartoons, for pity’s sake. Let anyone claim creation of beloved characters, as what difference for purpose of fluff articles did it make? Stakes got higher when postwar youth took their stand for integrity of the historical record, even at risk of opening scabs among cartoonists to whom it suddenly mattered who came first to Bugs or Daffy. Documentary evidence was a help 
(precious little survived), plus the cartoons themselves. Thanks to digital, they could now be examined frame-by-frame. Jones wrote a book, several in fact, after Clampett was gone (d.1984). Chuck Amuck came out in 1989 and hardly mentioned Bob. Jones stayed to comfortable age 89, linked much of that time with Warners for purpose of reliving, remerchandising, his cartoon past. Bet he got more money in semi-retirement than when he put Pepe, the coyote, and Hubie/Bertie through paces (Chuck had a gallery that sold cels he made up and signed). Of all that drew for Warners, Jones received the most latter-life laurels, including a special Academy Award. To my knowledge, he never relented re Clampett, and I’ve looked (Friz Freleng said that indeed, Jones "hated" Clampett). Also have asked the mirror if there is anyone I begrudge still after a half-century. Offhand can’t think of a one. Not to judge a past generation, as they were but human like us all, accomplishments (would that our own were so great) balanced by contrariness, this the stuff of ongoing fascination so long as we have the cartoons to enjoy.


Blogger Mike Cline said...

Oh boy. GREAT post. Starting in 1955, I was a regular at local PLAYHOUSE THEATRE for its weekly Saturday matinee kiddie shows. We only saw Disney cartoons if a Disney feature was playing. They were received well but nothing off the charts. Donald or Donald and Chip & Dale were the favorites in that category. But anytime the Warner shield appeared, the roof nearly blew off the building. The tunnel theme was never heard because of the moppet noise. It died down by the cartoon title, except if a desert bird streaked across the screen. Then there was another eruption. Good thing there was no dialogue with road runner and coyote as the noise level remained until That's All Folks ended. Every time Wil E.'s plan was foiled, the building would shake.

The only other attraction that generated such enthusiasm was fade-in to the Stooges. Didn't matter if it was Shemp or Joe. It could have been Larry, Moe and Pinky Lee. We wouldn't have cared. 600 kids can make a lot of noise.

Our PLAYHOUSE THEATRE catered to kids on Saturday afternoons through the 1960's. Yes, the "good" WB cartoons disappeared, replaced by the non-tunnel/shield titles, and the Stooges prints wore out and were not replaced. But while we had them, it was "blue ribbon."

8:38 AM  
Blogger Filmfanman said...

They were not only human, they were artists; maybe that explains the longevity of their professional grudges.

11:01 AM  
Blogger Barry Rivadue said...

On a side note, I prefer Max Fleischer, at least during the Betty Boop days. What impressed me though with WB '50s cartoons is they seemed totally modern for decades.

2:37 PM  
Blogger Jim Cobb said...

Back around 1975 or so I was lucky enough to attend a Chuck Jones event at AFI in DC, at that time still housed in the Kennedy Center. He was great and of course showed things like "What's Opera Doc" and "Duck Amuck." An amazing evening. I think Jones probably reaped the most out of his fame, even showing up in Joe Dante's GREMLINS. As far as the feuds go---as filmfanman says, these were artists.

2:47 PM  
Blogger radiotelefonia said...

Seeing the artwork of this post I can definitively say that those carrying the Bob Clampett's signature are terrific while those with Chuck Jones' are ugly or bad... in fact my dad used to draw me in my childhood far better quality versions than what I'm seeing here, and those were done in paper pieces to be eventually disposed.

Cartoons in Argentina, and specifically those from Warners, in the 70s and eighties never had the "prestige" of the Disney films but they were constantly rotated on television (virtually all of them) in the different TV packages and uncensored. They were so accessible that the compilations sent to movie theaters were always bland, weak, and far more unappealing than what we could see on television for free.

Despite the celebrity status that Chuck Jones attained later in his life, the work of Tex Avery, Bob Clampett and Friz Freleng was actually far better available and presented to audiences. The Pink Panther show was always scheduled early on prime time until the early eighties, but Jones' specials never, ever, were presented in such time slots and they were always considered as throwaway shows mixed with the regular rotating cartoon packages in which they surfaced as mediocre things in comparison.

3:39 PM  
Blogger DBenson said...

Warner Archive released "Bugs Bunny Superstar" with restored cartoons spliced in, plus a worthwhile commentary by the producer. He'd been doing cartoon evenings for a while, and had not only identified the most sure-fire cartoons but discovered his audiences got a bit limp after the one hour mark. Thus BBS was one hour of solid cartoons gently diluted with interviews and such. I've been part of college audiences that stayed awake and noisy for two hours plus of high-octane shorts, but that was the vigor of youth without day jobs.

Disney went into "Snow White" very concerned with audience fatigue. In addition to tight (as opposed to fast) pacing and controlled slapstick, color palettes were carefully muted in contrast to the usual bright hues of shorts. "Gulliver's Travels" suffered because it didn't find the balance. "Straight" characters, the ones we were supposed to care about, were dull rotoscopes, while others were too broad and rubbery. "Hoppity Goes to Town" was a vastly better film because they figured out how to dispense with realistic characters (except as the rotoscoped humans) and make us care about the cartoony bugs.

Fox distributed Terrytoons, which I ranked among Cartoons You Watched Only If The Other Channels Were Soap Operas (the slicker but annoyingly condescending Famous/Paramount/Harvey product fell in the same bracket). Even as I kid I had trouble wrapping my head around the idea of old Terrytoons ever being shown to adults in theaters.

Interesting that MGM was late to the fandom party, and then it was mostly for Tex Avery. Hanna and Barbara's Tom and Jerry toons were huge and even nudged Disney aside for multiple Oscars, but they seem to carry the MGM patina of slightly boring prestige. Also, they may suffer because of snobbish rejection of HB's television work. To be fair, the HB studio kept a lot of top talent working, albeit on
drastically reduced schedules and budgets. On revisiting their earliest shows, you can detect some actual wit in the scripts and designs to offset the cheapness.

By the 60s Disney also had a certain stodgy respectability; the shorts were known mainly as a starting point for characters now roaming TV, funnybooks and theme parks (a bit like Marvel comics now?). Most Disney shorts were more gently amusing and admirably crafted than laugh-out-loud funny. Also, they stopped making new ones aside from "specials", often with a claim to educational value. A late period Disney short in a theater might rate a shrug at worst; it was never as mockable as a Famous/Paramount or a Terrytoon.

4:41 PM  
Blogger Scott MacGillivray said...

Mike Cline is absolutely right: in my experience as a projectionist, the two things always guaranteed to bring instant cheers from an audience were 1) cartoons with the Warner Bros. shield, and 2) "Columbia Pictures Corporation presents The Three Stooges." Especially if the shorts came on unannounced -- the surprise always sent the crowds into orbit.

10:26 PM  
Blogger Ed Watz said...

Edward Bernds told me that when he was directing two-reel comedies at Columbia in the 1940s, the writers and directors would rent prints of 16mm silent comedies from local camera stores with a "home movie" library. Ed recalled, "It was common practice that Columbia men would bump into cartoonists from Warners and Disney. We'd all be there grabbing a handful of shorts to run back in the studio, hoping to get inspiration from some forgotten short subject of long ago."

4:14 AM  
Blogger John McElwee said...

Maurice Rapf's book, BACK LOT (Scarecrow, 1999), talks about when he worked at Disney, and how they often screened silent comedies to get ideas and inspiration for whatever was in the works.

7:13 AM  
Blogger MikeD said...

My first exposure to cartoons on TV were the silent Paul Terry cat and mouse bloodbaths. As traumatic as they were to a 3 year old back in the day, I'd welcome watching them now. A few can be found on YouTube.

9:19 AM  
Blogger Reg Hartt said...

I killed myself gathering cartoons for those 4 hour marathons. Except for Disney the films I was interested in could not be rented. Except for some of the features neither could much of the really interesting Disney stuff. In the process I amassed a huge library of 16mm prints. Then one day I learned that if I put together a really solid 2 hour show and held it over I could get a lot more people. Nonetheless I learned alot doing those marathons. Fans don't care for Terrytoons. Nonetheless those films went over big. I recall one called JUST ASK JUPITER I did not think much of but folks were wowed by it. Joe Adamson in TEX AVERY KING OF CARTOONS rated some early Warners cartoons with one star. They got five star applause. To really appreciate these works they are best experienced with non fan audiences.

1:32 PM  
Blogger DBenson said...

A lesson I learned in amateur theater was that while the play held zero surprises for the actors, most of the audience would be seeing and hearing everything for the first time. Things we viewed as mere exposition and plot mechanics turned out to be big, unexpected laughs. Likewise, as barely a social drinker I'm quite happy with a glass of wine my more knowledgable brother finds unpalatable.

A viewer who hasn't really watched Bugs Bunny or the Three Stooges since grade school is going to be constantly surprised and amused, while a serious fan has seen 50 variations of each gag and reacts to other things, like animators' flourishes and directorial touches.

5:08 PM  
Blogger Randy said...

A friend whose grandfather worked for a local theater chain for many years has told me that his grandfather told him that their theaters stopped booking cartoons in the mid-late '60s partly because the new stuff was "lousy" and the old stuff was already all over television, and partly because movie-going had ceased to be a family affair and cartoons seemed incompatible with much of the more adult-oriented fare Hollywood was releasing at the time.

The only cartoons I remember seeing theatrically when I was a kid (late 60s/early '70s) was Walter Lantz stuff at the drive-in, which I don't recall anyone paying the least bit of attention to, and the occasional Disney reissue, which Disney would sometimes tack onto one of their live-action features as an added attraction.

12:26 PM  
Blogger John McElwee said...

Craig Reardon returns to tell about some memorable cartoon experiences he had:

Hi John,

As for your column about cartoons, couldn't agree more with you on all points. I sure can't reach back to the 1940s, but I vividly remember being taken to see "The Comancheros" at one of the best theaters in Inglewood, the Academy. Before the feature they screened a new 'Roadrunner' cartoon (odd in retrospect as a WB product linked to a 20th Century-Fox film, but that was the case). Due I suppose to the continuous enthusiasm for any John Wayne picture, the theater--which was very large, with a balcony--was packed. I won't say nobody today can experience something like that any more, but I think I'm safe in saying that they can't experience it as regularly as you still could, in the '60s. And the reception for the cartoon was huge! Huge laughs. Then again, "The Comancheros" had some great laughs, mixed in with the general mayhem, romance, and quasi-violence. An inspired recreation of this experience was George Lucas's contriving to screen an excellent print of the classic "Duck Dodgers in the 24-1/2 Century" (hope that's half correct), right before the cast and crew screening of "Star Wars"...and yes, I was there to see it, at the Goldwyn Theater inside the AMPAS headquarters on Wilshire Blvd. in Beverly Hills in 1977. Primed to see the movie they'd all worked on, the audience was nevertheless taken by complete surprise and thrilled to see the credits go up on the cartoon, and it got a great reception. Following that, the thundering Alfred Newman 20th Century-Fox logo got an ovation, and the coopting of the scrolling credits similar to old movie serials (possibly including Universal's "Flash Gordon", but I for one am not sure of that), plus John Williams barn-burning score, got the afternoon off to a fantastic start. Lucas then proceeded to take his audience on a trip simultaneously backwards and forwards into movie history in one of the memorable experiences of my life as a moviegoer. This sounds made up, and that's an apt charge against a makeup man (haha), but, I saw the short in stature Lucas, arms folded and standing/leaning against the wall as the theater emptied after the screening, and I made a point of going up to him and saying, "You're going to be a very rich man." Just call me Nostradamus.

I continually marvel at how you manage to mine fresh gems from a 'fixed' body of work, The Movies of the golden era (or, so!) Not to say they weren't marvelous, not to say they were voluminous, and not to say they weren't FAR more varied than what's on offer today. I think the most interesting thing is how they were both more and less sophisticated than what we have today, but usually to my mind to the credit and benefit of the older product vs the new. Then again I'm a child of the 20th century and more biased to its better values and pop cultural landscape.


5:43 PM  

Post a Comment

<< Home
  • December 2005
  • January 2006
  • February 2006
  • March 2006
  • April 2006
  • May 2006
  • June 2006
  • July 2006
  • August 2006
  • September 2006
  • October 2006
  • November 2006
  • December 2006
  • January 2007
  • February 2007
  • March 2007
  • April 2007
  • May 2007
  • June 2007
  • July 2007
  • August 2007
  • September 2007
  • October 2007
  • November 2007
  • December 2007
  • January 2008
  • February 2008
  • March 2008
  • April 2008
  • May 2008
  • June 2008
  • July 2008
  • August 2008
  • September 2008
  • October 2008
  • November 2008
  • December 2008
  • January 2009
  • February 2009
  • March 2009
  • April 2009
  • May 2009
  • June 2009
  • July 2009
  • August 2009
  • September 2009
  • October 2009
  • November 2009
  • December 2009
  • January 2010
  • February 2010
  • March 2010
  • April 2010
  • May 2010
  • June 2010
  • July 2010
  • August 2010
  • September 2010
  • October 2010
  • November 2010
  • December 2010
  • January 2011
  • February 2011
  • March 2011
  • April 2011
  • May 2011
  • June 2011
  • July 2011
  • August 2011
  • September 2011
  • October 2011
  • November 2011
  • December 2011
  • January 2012
  • February 2012
  • March 2012
  • April 2012
  • May 2012
  • June 2012
  • July 2012
  • August 2012
  • September 2012
  • October 2012
  • November 2012
  • December 2012
  • January 2013
  • February 2013
  • March 2013
  • April 2013
  • May 2013
  • June 2013
  • July 2013
  • August 2013
  • September 2013
  • October 2013
  • November 2013
  • December 2013
  • January 2014
  • February 2014
  • March 2014
  • April 2014
  • May 2014
  • June 2014
  • July 2014
  • August 2014
  • September 2014
  • October 2014
  • November 2014
  • December 2014
  • January 2015
  • February 2015
  • March 2015
  • April 2015
  • May 2015
  • June 2015
  • July 2015
  • August 2015
  • September 2015
  • October 2015
  • November 2015
  • December 2015
  • January 2016
  • February 2016
  • March 2016
  • April 2016
  • May 2016
  • June 2016
  • July 2016
  • August 2016
  • September 2016
  • October 2016
  • November 2016
  • December 2016
  • January 2017
  • February 2017
  • March 2017
  • April 2017
  • May 2017
  • June 2017
  • July 2017
  • August 2017
  • September 2017
  • October 2017
  • November 2017
  • December 2017
  • January 2018
  • February 2018
  • March 2018
  • April 2018
  • May 2018
  • June 2018
  • July 2018
  • August 2018
  • September 2018
  • October 2018
  • November 2018
  • December 2018
  • January 2019
  • February 2019
  • March 2019
  • April 2019
  • May 2019
  • June 2019
  • July 2019
  • August 2019
  • September 2019
  • October 2019
  • November 2019
  • December 2019
  • January 2020
  • February 2020
  • March 2020
  • April 2020
  • May 2020
  • June 2020
  • July 2020
  • August 2020
  • September 2020
  • October 2020
  • November 2020
  • December 2020
  • January 2021
  • February 2021
  • March 2021
  • April 2021
  • May 2021
  • June 2021
  • July 2021
  • August 2021
  • September 2021
  • October 2021
  • November 2021
  • December 2021
  • January 2022
  • February 2022
  • March 2022
  • April 2022
  • May 2022
  • June 2022
  • July 2022
  • August 2022
  • September 2022
  • October 2022
  • November 2022
  • December 2022
  • January 2023
  • February 2023
  • March 2023
  • April 2023
  • May 2023
  • June 2023
  • July 2023
  • August 2023
  • September 2023
  • October 2023
  • November 2023
  • December 2023